KwaBhaca Kingdom Umkhosi wokukhahlela (womhlanga) 2014

Umkhosi wokukhahlela Bhaca Royal Reed ceremony Elundzini Royal Residence KwaBhaca 5 Bhaca Maidens KwaBhaca Kingdom Umkhosi wokukhahlela (womhlanga) 2014

King Madzikane II dancing in front of the Bhaca maidens at Umkhosi wokukhahlela 2014 in Elundzini Great Place, Ncunteni village, Mount Frere

We recently had an opportunity to speak to the King of the Bhaca Kingdom, King Madzikane II, Ahh! Tholelengwe!!! Thandisizwe ka Dilizintaba ka Dingumhlaba ka Mabhijela i ka kaMthakathi kaQoza ka Diko ka Ncaphayi ka Madzikane ka Khalimeshe ka Vebi ka Wabane ka Didi (Zelemu) ka Lufulwenja, ka Mageba, ka Gumede kaZulu kaNtombela kaMalandela kaLuzumana kaMdlani kaNkosinkulu. We spoke to him about this year’s Umkhosi wokukhahlela (womhlanga) held on the 27th September 2014 at Elundzini Royal Residence, KwaBhaca Great Place , Ncunteni village in Mount Frere.

Q: What is Umkhosi Wokukhahlela?

A: Umkhosi wokukhahlela is a cultural practice of AmaBhaca that seeks to restore and entrench the dignity of the Bhaca Kingdom, through its women and young girls. It’s a response to a need to reignite the principle that the beauty of a nation is seen through its children, young girls and women. It’s about showing the beauty of AmaBhaca. If we respect our children, youth and women, we will be respected as this nation. This is an old practice which we used to observe. However today it’s also our attempt to respond to HIV, teenage pregnancy, school dropouts. It’s about purity while instilling a sense of worth and focus amongst young people.


Q: What is the history behind this very significant event?

A: Annually, we made a decision as part of the reconstruction of Bhaca Kingdom that we must celebrate our children and women as a nation to show how much they mean to us.


Q: When and why did you revive this age-old tradition?

A: On my return and taking the role to lead this nation, weI had to think about the main building blocks that will take the Bhaca Kingdom forward. This was about laying the foundation. This is the foundation – instilling a value system. This was conceptualised in 2009 when I came back to the Kingdom.

1 Umkhosi wokukhahlela Bhaca Royal Reed ceremony Elundzini Royal Residence KwaBhaca 6 Bhaca Maidens KwaBhaca Kingdom Umkhosi wokukhahlela (womhlanga) 2014

Bhaca maidens bringing traditional beer and a traditional drink (imbile/inqodi) to the King

Q: Why is it important for girls to partake in this magnificent event in the Bhaca calendar?

A: Young girls are the face of this nation (ziintyatyambo zesi sizwe) and If we cannot show our love for them first, they will not be respected elsewhere. This provides an opportunity for them to be taught very fundamental principles of life based on our culture as amaBhaca, as you would remember that some are coming from child headed households or without parents. As it takes a village to raise a child, this provides equal opportunity for the children who take part. It’s also a platform that protects them from the ills of the society such as rape and gender based violence. There is more to it. Also, we do not have dustbin for any child in this nation therefore, all children regardless of circumstances must be allowed to participate.


Q: What is your vision for this spectacular event and for the Bhaca Kingdom as a whole for the near future?

A: The programme must carry on for as long as this nation lives. This Kingdom must arrive to a point where its liberation will be measured by having its people taking pride in saying that they areAmaBhaca equal to all other Kingdoms of the World. We should not shy away from the fact that we are still oppressed.


Umkhosi wokukhahlela ceremony 2014 was a success, though only on its third year, more than 500 girls who undergo virginity testing, attended the ceremony as proud iintombi nto!!! Indlovukati yesizwe samaBhaca, Queen Nosizwe, MaMjoli, Wushe, Qubulashe, Nonina, sindzangonwalu, Nongwenya was at the ceremony. Some of the speakers on the day were Mr Zola Zembo Mlenzana  & Mr Lumko Mtimde from the Bhovu clan and CEO of the Media Development and Diversity Agency (MDDA),  who encouraged the proud Bhaca maidens to  focus on developing and empowering themselves with education for a bright future.

Ahh! Tholelengwe! Zulu, Khalimeshe, Nofis’ ongafi ofa ngamaloyo kuphela, msunywana omncanyana ngokuswela wona, mafula ngesibumbu ngokuswel’ ingobozi. Ndabezitha, Mageba, Zul’omnyama iindlela zimhlophe,Wabane!!!


What is Heritage

Siyabonga UGqobozimbawula Ngcai 2a MaXhosa by Laduma Xhosa Heritage What is HeritageI see people especially youngsters fail to understand the meaning of heritage. Let us define and examine it with a simple language from Oxford dictionary of current English; “it is property that is or may be inherited; an inheritance”. Meaning our heritage is what has been passed to us by our antecedents. It is what is passed from one generation to another. Heritage can also be defined as legacy. So if we celebrate heritage we therefore celebrate life of our ancestors. Life given to us by them.

Our ancestors were then Traditional Spiritualists who embraced tradition, culture and values and practiced customs and rituals. So if you distanced yourself from that and or against it, then we shouldn’t be celebrating our African heritage with you because you have rejected what you were supposed to inherit. African heritage is not only about cultures but about traditional beliefs as well, and there is traditional philosophy behind everything in tradition. Our ancestors were organic intellectuals and philosophers. So there was spiritual philosophy behind everything, from language to clothing, from spirituality to customs and rituals, from land to chiefdom, from education to arts, from science to medicine, fromm names to surnames and clan names, and so forth. Everything was referred to as the gift from the ancestors and uNkulunkulu the Great Spirit, hence heritage.

Lonto ithi ukuba wena uzosinxibela imibhaco okanye naluphi na uhlobo lwesihombo sakwantu, ube ungakholwa kwinkolo kaNtu, emva koko uthi you are celebrating your heritage, chith’utyiwe ukhe phantsi isitya sizele.

And if you converted from INkolo kaNtu to any other religion including Judaism, Christianity, Baha’i, Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, Sikhism or whatever, we are not going to celebrate our African heritage with you. Because those religions are not part of our heritage, and Christianity was forced through physical and psychological slavery to devastate our cultures and beliefs “Heritage”, and we are not celebrating slavery here, remember. Our ancestors were brutally murdered because they refused to go to church; they refused to give land and cattle for the bible, but anyway, the mission of demolishing African cultures and stealing land was a success. So it’s a must to agree that our heritage was stolen, and part of it relegated to a dustbin by Europeans and Mental Enslaved Africans.

Siyabonga UGqobozimbawula Ngcai 4 e1412802881337 What is HeritageAfrican Traditional Spirituality plays an enormous role in African heritage. It is a religion of Black African people if I may put it that way. That means “we do not separate our colour from our religion. The white man doesn’t. The white man never has separated Christianity from white, nor has he separated white man from Christianity. When you hear the white man bragging; “I’m a Christian” he is bragging about being a white man. Then you have the negro/black man. When he is bragging about being a Christian, he is bragging about being a white man or he wants to be white, and usually those negroes who brag like that, I think you have to agree, in their songs and things they sing in church, they show they have a greater desire to be white than anything else” (Malcom X, Black Man’s History speech).

Let us talk about clan names and why we should not consider celebrating our heritage with you if you don’t believe in ancestors. Let us first deal with the significance behind clan names. It is to thank, praise and worship, that’s ancestral worship. Remember your clan names are your ancestor’s names. For an example: Bhala, Mchenge, Sukude, Madiba, Maduna, Khwetshube, Bhele, Cirha, Dlamini, you name them, those are the ancestors, your roots and heritage. That is why “I think” white people do not have clan names because they don’t believe in dead people as they claim. So if you also on that page, of not believing in ancestors, then you might as well not praise them, because you can’t claim to be Mchenge but you do not believe in Mchenge himself. Hayi kaloku ayihambi kanjalo, umvuma umphika uMchenge ngoku. Ngumvubo wamanqina kaloku lowo.Yibacalanye ubeyimpuku okanye ubeyintaka.

Ancestral Worship/African Traditional Spirituality/ Inkolo KaNtu and Christianity cannot go together, that is against our African Heritage. As you cannot take both Christianity and Buddhism. Ngukhomba-khomba nonondwayiza kaloku abo. Ifane ke neNkolo Kantu neChristianity, azidibani. African spirituality and Jews and/or Greeks religion are like a snake and the frog. It is water and paraffin. Let us clear that confusion and eradicate it to pigs and dogs. I see a lot of folks mix the two, they posses confusion. For example a white man has nothing to do with ancestors, reason being, he is a Christian. That is why they insulted and referred to ancestors as demons because they don’t believe in them, and unfortunately slaves digested that. I don’t blame them, when you are enslaved sometimes you lose or lack common sense and cognizance and take whatever is said by the master as truth and light.


Written By Siyabonga UGqoboz’imbawula Ngcai
(Mental Slavery and Mental Liberation).
Batshise Mbawula!

AmaXhosa AseRhawutini Heritage Reunion

AmaXhosa Heritage Reunion Mbafi Lodge Xhosa Culture 33 e1411851310213 AmaXhosa AseRhawutini Heritage Reunion

AmaXhosa AseRhawutini Heritage Reunion is an annual event organized by Mzoxolo Allistair Jola Mpike, Bonke Mlungwana, Thobela Biko and others. In previous years, the event is said to have been held successfully and this year’s event was also expected to be likewise… The aim of the event is to unite Xhosa speaking people who are based in Gauteng(AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhade, AbaThembu, AmaMpondo, AmaMpondomise, AmaBhaca, AmaXesibe, AmaGqunukhwebe, etc) and those interested in Xhosa Culture. It’s aim is to unite, educate them on the history and heritage of Xhosa people and entertain them with some of the country’s best musicians, poets and other artists. According to the organisers, this year’s lineup was scheduled to be hosted by Luyanda Potwana of SABC 1’s Nyan Nyan, and acts such as Jessica Mbangeni, 6 Mabone, Simbone Inyange, Nqontsonqa, Athi, Eastern Boys, Traditional Dancers and more. The venue being Mbafi Lodge in Midrand.

AmaXhosa Heritage Reunion Mbafi Lodge Xhosa Culture 42 e1411851371505 AmaXhosa AseRhawutini Heritage Reunion

Came the day of the event, Xhosa speaking people came from all corners of the Gauteng province, some from as far as Rustenburg in North West Province. The entrance at the venue was R60.00 and for a cooler box, an additional R50.00. The event was scheduled to start at 12pm midday, and by 14H00, it was still very far from being ready to begin… People came dressed in the wonderful Xhosa Traditional Dresses (Imibhaco), and very colourful Xhosa beads to witness this day of Cultural & Heritage Celebrations, only to be disappointed by very poor organizational skills from the “organizers”. By around 16H00 people were losing their patience with the main event co-ordinator, Mzoxolo “Jola” Mpike, no artist had arrived, the sound system was still not working, and fortunately for the organizers, guests decided to get the event going, through Xhosa Traditional Songs & dances (kusombelwa, kuxhentswa). Shortly after 17H00, Jessica Mbangeni, the revered Xhosa poetess arrived ready to do what she is popularly known for, entertain with insightful Xhosa Poetry from her latest album, IGOLI, but unfortunately, the sound system was still not ready for her to perform. By this time, most people were starting to lose their patience as Jola was making excuses so as to why the sound system was still not ready, and non-alcoholic drinks not available. Some left while some were demanding their money back, though it’s unlikely they got it.

AmaXhosa Heritage Reunion Mbafi Lodge Xhosa Culture 10 e1411851425545 AmaXhosa AseRhawutini Heritage Reunion

By 19H00 it was dark, lights were not working and it was not easy getting ahold of Jola. What promised to be one of the most amazing events in the Xhosa calender turned out to be a total waste of time and money for most people, as none of what had been promised actually happened. Many people who came from far away places in Gauteng and other provinces felt very betrayed and cheated by the organisers who never even gave a proper explanation regarding this dismal event which was supposed to end in high spirits and a renewed sense of Xhosa Cultural Identity for those who took time to attend it… The sound system was only sorted after 20H00, by then most people had left. Jessica Mbangeni performed for those who had remained and then after it became a party until it was stopped by the police in the early hours of the morning…XhosaCulture

Kumahla Ndinyuka [Trials & Tribulations]

Kumahla ndinyuka omhlaba,

ndidla ngolumka ndifane naye u-Raymond Mhlaba,

ndilandele yona indlela,

kanye njengaye no-Nelson Mandela,

ndithi ezindzulwini zobusuku,

ndime njengaye utata u-Walter Sisulu,

andisathethi ngayo ingqondo yemveli,

iqhawe lomzabalazo utata u-Govan Mbeki,

ufane wazibuza ukuthi ndingubani,

ekugqibeleni sakubakunye naye no-Hani,

andisayikubanjwa nayimilambo,

ndohlala ndili-Comrade lika-Oliver Tambo!

Translation of this praise poem – an ode to the stalwarts and freedom fighters of the liberation movement, which is originally written in my ethnic South African language – isiXhosa:

Through the trials and tribulations of this world,

Jus’ like Raymond Mhlaba I partake wisdom from His Word;

Directed on the path I shall walk,

As part ‘n parcel of Nelson Mandela’s stalk;

In the midst of the night I shall stand tall,

In the image of Walter Sisulu ‘n all;

I speak not of instinctive intelligence,

As in freedom fighters of Govan Mbeki’s caliber, at a glance!

You may have asked yourself who I am?

We shall be reunited with Hani in the end,

Not even the most perilous of rivers can stop me,

For a comrade of Oliver Tambo I’ll forever be!


© Gcinuxolo ‘Gcina’ Yawathe. 2010

Marikana (by Xolile Mgijima)

Mgcineni ‘Mambush’ Noki Marikana Massacre e1408618772109 Marikana (by Xolile Mgijima)Mzi wakowethu, Sizwe sasekhaya

Ma-Afrik’amahle, Sizwendin’esintsundu

Kwakhona lelo xesha leenkumbulo

Sikhumbul’ukuwa kwabantwana bomgquba

Sikhumbul’ukuwa kwabantakwethu

Sikhumbul’ukuwa kwemidak’emnyama

Sikhumbul’umbon’ombi wokugraywa kwamadod’elizwe

Isankenteza nangoku loo ngxokolo naloo ngxolo yevolovolo

“dudu—dududu—dudududu” Lahlanz’iselwa waqhawuk’unobathana kwabaninzi

Sikhumbula loo mini bantwana basekhaya

Marikana, Marikana, kanti kwenzeka ntoni?

Owu! Owu! Marikana

Yenzek’intlekele madoda

Zatyakatywa zagraywa iintsika zemizi

Aw’amadoda kwashek’abahlolokazi

Zashek’iintsana ziinyembezana ngokuwa kooyise

Sivakel’isanxwe sesikhalo ndawo zonke

Yasik’inimba koonozala xa bebon’umhlola

Xa bebukel’ishwangusha lokutyakatywa koonyana

Sikhumbula loo mine yeshwangusha kumhlaba weAfrika

Marikana, Marikana, kanti kwenzeka ntoni?

Kanti kwenzeka ntoni kule Marikana

Kanti yaqala phi na lempi?

Ndiyabuza mz’omhle ndicel’impendulo

Omny’ukhomb’omny’esweni, omny’uvikel’elakhe

Yhini na madoda sesaphelelwa zizazela na?

Siphi n’isazela sakho Afrika?

Asisayoyiki n’ingqumbo yeminyanya xa sitshila kanje?

Marikana, Marikana, kanti kwenzeka ntoni

Kodwa noko kunjalo sizw’esimnyama

Thulani zihlobo ningakhali

Thulani bahlobo ningasoli

Sulan’ezonyembezi maAfrik’amahle

Bayekeni bagqum’umbona ngamakhasi,

Kodwa won’umoya uzakufika uvunduze

Kuba kaloku akukho nany’efihlakala kuphele


Uzakuniphendulelal’uMdali wen’uQamata

Marikana, Marikana, kuzobuya kulunge

(By Xolile Mgijima)


Uduli Xhosa marriage wedding UDULI Uduli – Ukwenda kwentombi ligugu, ibhongo neqhayiya kwaNtu.Kuba luvuyo nemincili kwikhaya lakulo ntombi kanti nakwi khaya lakulo myeni,kaloku ngoku ziyafezekiseka iziyalo awayeziyalwe mhla ngejaka.Ukhumbule kaloku mlesi amaXhosa athi ingcwaba lentombi lisemzini.
Intombi elotyolweyo ayiziyeli emzini iyasiwa ngabantu bakowayi kanti nokuba ithe yagongxiswa ingasiwanga iphinda indlela ibuyele kowayo asakube amakhaya ethethile axoxa ngayo. Xa isisiwa emzini kuyabotshwa, iqokelelelwa izipho ezakufika izisebenzise emzini ukuze ingasokoli.Kwezo zipho ke ithi ihambe nazo xa isiya emzini kuquka iinkomo ezintathu:Inkomo yenqakwe le yinkomo elithokazi nesisipho sikamazala esivela kulontombi,Eyesibini yinkomo yobulunga, yona yimazi yenkomo enethole elibango lomtshakazi nayinikwa likhaya lakhe ukuze asenge angalambi yena nabantwana. Inkomo yempothulo,yinkabi yenkomo eqinileyo nengumnikelo wekhay
a nefika ixhelwe ze kuthathwe inyongo yayo idityaniswa naleyo yaleyo ibixhelwe ngabakulo myeni , ziphalazwe emthonyameni ukumanya eso sibini.Sinenkolo ethi nesosibini akukho mntu onakusahlula sakufana nezonyongo zenkome kulomthonyama……Makhe nditshaye!!!

Nelson Mandela Timeline – Little Known Facts You May Not Know About Dalibhunga

Nelson Rholihlahla Mandela Former President of South Africa e1405764708874 Nelson Mandela Timeline – Little Known Facts You May Not Know About DalibhungaRevolutionary hero and anti-apartheid icon, Nelson Mandela is among the most famous and well-respected political activists of all time, and after serving 27 years in prison, he became South Africa’s first democratically elected Black president in 1994.

From his earliest days as a descendant of South African royalty, the Thembu Kingdom to his activism against racism and apartheid in South Africa, Mandela and his heroism has literally created history for more than 75 years. But even international icons such as Mandela have little-known facts in their backgrounds.

Few lives have been thoroughly chronicled as that of  former South African President Nelson Mandela, who passed away on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95.

Below is a Nelson Mandela timeline outlining some of the key events in his life.

Parents: Father: Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, Mother: Nonqaphi Nosekeni Fanny. Mandela’s father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a local chief in the Transkei region and had four wives,  four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson’s mother was Gadla’s third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, who was daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of Xhosa.

Nelson Rholihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela, the son of Chief Mphakanyiswa (Gadla) kaMandela kaNgubengcuka kaNdaba kaZondwa kaTato kaMadiba kaHala kaDlomo kaNxeko ka(Mboti?) kaNtande kaToyi kaCeduma (Cedwini) kaDunakazi kaBhomoyi kaThembu kaNtongakazi kaMalandela kaNjanya kaMbulali kaZwide…!

Clan Names (Iziduko): Dlomo, Madiba, Yem-Yem, Vela bambhentsele, Sophitsho, Ngqolomsila, Tubhana, Qhumpase, Ntande, MThembu, Ncikoza, Mtshikilana, Malangana, Bhomoyi! MThembu obhuzu-bhuzu. UNontsedwane, ooMaqath’alukhuni, ongengomXhosa, onguMThembu, kodwa ethethisiXhosa.

Date of Birth – July 18, 1918: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born in Transkei, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. A member of the Madiba clan. Nelson Mandela was born into the royal Thembu family. His tribal name, “Rholihlahla,” means “troublemaker.” He is later given his English name, Nelson, by a teacher at his school. Mandela was baptized a Methodist. By the time of Rholihlahla’s birth in 1918:

  • Most of Black South Africans’ land had been legally stolen for 5 years through the Native Land Act of 1913.
  • The ANC was 6 years old, having been started in 1912 as a result of the Land Act that was about to be legalised, and many other injustices to African people. Born in the mind of Pixley ka Isaka Seme having realised that all Black Africans had a common enemy, the white European settlers and that all African had to come together, united against this enemy and put aside their tribal differences.
  • The Union of South Africa was 8 years old (A union of Afrikaaners & British settlers that had fought in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899 – 1902), uniting for the control of the Economy of South Africa and oppression of the indigenous people, led by Louis Botha then General Jan Smuts.
  • It had been 24 years since Pondoland, one of the last native lands to fall under British control, in 1894.
  • It had been 34 years since the passing of King Ngangelizwe in 1884, the grand-father of Thembu Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, who later became Rholihlahla’s guardian, after the passing away of Chief Mpakanyiswa
  • The Xhosa people had lost their independence for 40 years (having lost their independence in 1878/9 to British settlers, after the last “Frontier War”)
  • It had been 62 years since the unfortunate incident of Nongqawuse & Cattle Killings of 1856 which led to Black people having to seek employment from the white European settlers for the first time in their lives to survive. A pattern that still continues to this day.  Before then, most Black people were self-employed, they had vast amounts of land to plough and feed their families, and had vast food reserves, should there be a drought or any other natural disaster.
  • It had been 83 years since the beginning of a systematic conquest of AbaThembu (Tembus), AmaMpondo (Pondos), AmaBhaca, AmaMfengu (Fingoes) and Xhosa communities in what came to be known as the Transkei and Ciskei by British commander Harry Smith and the eventual killing of King Hintsa ka Khawuta.
  • The Zulu Kingdom was 102 years old, as it was started by Shaka kaSenzangakhona kaJama kaNdaba in 1816.
  • It had been 139 years since the beginning of “Fronteir Wars” or Wars of Resistance to white settlers invading the land of the Southern Nguni people…

1919: His father is dispossessed of his land and money on the orders of a white magistrate after his refusal to obey an 1927: Nelson Mandela was 9-years-old when his father died of a lung disease.  The acting chief of the Thembu clan, Jongintaba Dalindyebo becomes his guardian and ensures he receives an excellent education 1934: Mandela went through the ancient Xhosa Tradition of initiation at the age of 16, a tradition that marks the transition from being a boy to manhood. He was then given his  name, DalibhungaDalibhunga means founder of the council, or convener of the dialogue. Convening a space for dialogue for purposes of turning adversaries into allies is one of Dalibhunga’s greatest achievements.

earliest known photo of nelson mandela at healdtown 1937 to 1938 photo by Ardon Bar Hama e1405765218949 Nelson Mandela Timeline – Little Known Facts You May Not Know About Dalibhunga

Earliest known-photo of Nelson Mandela at Healdtown College 1937-1938 photo by Ardon Bar/Hama

1937: Moves to Healdtown attending the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort. 1939: Nelson Mandela enrolls in University College of Fort Hare. Studied for a B.A. and met his lifelong friend Oliver Tambo. 1940: Nelson Mandela expelled from Fort Hare due to his involvement in a boycott of the Students’ Representative Council against the university policies. Moves to Johannesburg to escape an arranged marriage and experiences the system of apartheid which forbade the black population to vote, travel without permission or own land. Worked as a guard at a mine and then clerk at a law firm. 1942: Nelson Mandela earns a bachelor’s degree via correspondence through the University of South Africa 1943: Nelson Mandela begins studying for law degree at University of Witwatersrand whilst living in Alexandra. Joins the African National Congress (ANC) as an activist 1944: Forms the Youth League of the ANC with Ashley Peter Mda, Oliver TamboWalter Sisulu with Anton Lembede as the first President. Marries his first wife Evelyn Ntoko Mase. 1945: Nelson Mandela and Evelyn Mase celebrate the birth of their first childThembekile. The couple had three children but the marriage breaks up in 1957 as his political activism was intensifying. 1948: South African government (Afrikaner-dominated National Party) limits the freedom of black Africans even more when the apartheid policy of racial segregation is introduced across the country, after the National Party won the elections & DF Malan becoming President of the country.

1951: Nelson Mandela elected president of the African National Congress Youth League, which he’d co-founded in 1944.

1952: Nelson Mandela convicted of violating the Suppression of Communism Act and sentenced to nine months in prison; founded the first black law firm in South Africa’s history with fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo providing free or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who would otherwise have been without legal representation.  Mandela was prominent in the ANC’s 1952 Defiance Campaign.

1955: Freedom Charter adopted at the Congress of the People, in Kliptown, Soweto calling for equal rights and a program of the anti-apartheid cause.

December 5, 1956: Accused of conspiring to overthrow the South African state by violent means with 155 other political activists and charged with high treason. The Treason Trial of 1956–61 follows and all were acquitted.

1957: His marriage of 13 years to his first wife Evelyn Ntoko Mase breaks up due to his increased political activism.

1958: Divorces Evelyn Ntoko Mase and marries Nomzamo “Winnie” Madikizela, a social worker, and the couple have two daughters. Their marriage ended in separation in April 1992 and divorce in March 1996.

1959: Parliament passes new laws extending racial segregation by creating separate homelands for  major black groups in South Africa. The ANC loses most of its financial and militant support when members break away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo.

1960: Sharpeville Massacre: Police kill 69 peaceful protestors and the ANC is banned. Mandela goes into hiding and forms an underground military group with armed resistance. Though Mandela rejected violence, he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe 1961: South Africa becomes a Republic on May 31 and Queen Elizabeth II is stripped of the title Queen of South Africa and Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd intensifies apartheid. Mandela issues a call to arms and becomes the ANC leader of the newly formed Umkhonto  we Sizwe a guerrilla movement at the All-In African Conference as its “Volunteer in Chief” in 1961. Its founding represented the conviction in the face of the massacre that the ANC could no longer limit itself to non-violent protest; MK launched its first guerrilla attacks against government installations on 16 December 1961 as a form of retaliation to the Apartheid government. August 5, 1962: Arrested after living on the run as the “Black Pimpernel” for seventeen months and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort, where the Constitutional Court of South Africa now sits.

October 25:  Nelson Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison but again goes on the run.

October 1963: Charged with sabotaging the government.

June 12, 1964: Captured and convicted of sabotage and treason, Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison at the age of 46, initially on Robben island where he would be kept for 18 years. Mandela was also held at Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison during his 27 year sentence. Mandela’s eyesight was permanently damaged from sun glare while being forced to work in prison without sunglasses.

1965: Rhodesia gains its independence from the British and only whites are represented in the new government

1968: His mother dies and his eldest son, Thembi, is killed in a car crash but he is not allowed to attend either of the funerals.

1974: Rhodesia is expelled from the United Nations due to its policy of apartheid

1976: Over 600 students are killed in protests in Soweto and Sharpeville. Steve Biko, who had stepped-in to fill the leadership vacuum left by the banning of the ANC, PAC & other parties, and the arrest of other leaders, including Mandela, played a big role during this time, inspiring the youth to stand up against oppression.

1977: Steve Biko, leader of the protest movement, is killed while in police custody

1980: The exiled Oliver Tambo launches an international campaign for the release of his friend. Zimbabwe gains its  independence & Robert Mugabe its President. President Ronald Reagan considered Mandela a communist terrorist and worked against the African National Congress.

1983: The government allows farmers to re-arm and protect themselves from black dissidents

1984: Government sources declared that since 1983, black dissidents have murdered 120, mutilated 25, raped 47 and committed 284 robberies

1985: Nelson Mandela turns down offer from South African President PW Botha to leave prison on condition that he ‘”unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon”. Mandela spurned the offer, releasing a statement through his daughter Zindzi stating “What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts.” When Stevie Wonder dedicated to Mandela his 1985 Oscar Award for the song “I Just Called to Say I Love You,” Wonder’s music was banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC).

1986:  Sanctions against South Africa tightened costing millions in revenue Dec. 7, 1988: Nelson Mandela moved from Pollsmoor Prison to Victor Verster Prison, where he’s held in a cottage for 14 months

1988: Amnesty is announced for all dissidents – 122 surrender.

Feb. 2, 1990: South African government lifts ban on ANC

Feb. 11, 1990: President De Klerk lifts the ban on the African National Congress (ANC). Nelson Mandela released after 27 years in prison. The ANC and the white National Party begin talks on forming a multi-racial democracy for South Africa. In the days following his release from prison in 1990, Mandela stayed at the home of Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

1991: Nelson Mandela becomes President of the African National Congress (ANC). The International Olympics Committee lift a 21 year ban on South African athletes competing in the Olympic Games. Mandela appeared in the 1992 film “Malcolm X.” Tours USA. April 1992: Separates from Winnie Mandela after she is convicted of kidnapping and being an accessory to assault

Dec. 10, 1993: Nelson Mandela and Mr. de Klerk are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

April 26, 1994: Free Elections where black South Africans are allowed to vote for the first time. Nelson Mandela runs for President. The ANC won 252 of the 400 seats in the national assembly

May 9, 1994: Nelson Mandela becomes South Africa’s first democratically elected black president. He appoints de Klerk as deputy president and forms a racially mixed Government of National Unity.

Watch Nelson Mandela’s 1994 Inaugural Address Below:

1995: South Africa hosts the 1995 Rugby World Cup and South Africa wins. Nelson Mandela wears a Springbok shirt when he presents the trophy to Afrikaner captain Francois Pienaar. This gesture was seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans

July 6, 1995: Nelson Mandela receives Honorary Doctorate from Seoul National University

March 1996: Nelson Mandela divorces Winnie Mandela

July 18, 1998: On his 80th birthday, Nelson Mandela marries Graca Machel, his third wife and the widow of the former president of Mozambique, and ally on South Africa’s freedom struggle, Samora Michel, who had died 12 years earlier.

1999: Nelson Mandela steps down as South Africa’s president after one term in office in favor of Thabo Mbeki, who was nominated ANC president in 1997. Tours the world as a global statesman

2000: Appointed as mediator in the civil war in Burundi

2001: Nelson Mandela is diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer with radiation. Prior to his death, he was the only living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen.

2003: Attacked the foreign policy of U.S. President George W. Bush. Later that same year, he lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign. The initiative was named after his prison number

June 1, 2004: Nelson Mandela officially announces that he would be retiring from public life at the age of 85.

July: Flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference.

July 23: Johannesburg bestowed its highest honor by granting Nelson Mandela the freedom of the city

January 6, 2005: His son, Makgatho Mandela died of AIDS

July 11, 2010: Nelson Mandela appears at the World Cup in Soweto

July 18, 2012: Nelson Mandela marks his 94th birthday in Qunu, Eastern Cape

June 8, 2013: Nelson Mandela hospitalized with a lung infection, said to be in “very serious” condition.

December 5, 2013: South African President Jacob Zuma announces that former President of South Africa and freedom fighter Nelson Mandela had left the world a dimmer place with his passing.

Watch A Short Bio On Nelson Mandela’s Life Below:

Currently: Most black South Africans think that they are really true “FREE”, since most of the segregative & restrictive laws of the Apartheid regime are no more. They think that the STRUGGLE is over… This thought usually comes as a result of not having a proper background to the STRUGGLE and the role that Nelson Mandela played in it. Well, the struggle is far from over. To this day, more than 80% of South Africa’s land is still in white European settlers’ hands & control, not all of them though, but a few males who own a vast majority of South Africa’s rich land. The economy of the country is still in the hands of white monopoly capital, while the majority of black South Africans are still poor, and those are employed don’t realise that they are just a pay-check or two away from poverty. Principles that Africans people valued and used, such a Food reserves, are today nothing but just something in history. During the days of real independence of African people, actually, until recently, there would be enough maize & sorghum stored in reservoirs to last at-least a year. Whereas today the whole nation is at the mercy of big retailers, who control the food industry.

The struggle begun in 1652, when the first European settlers came into South Africa. This STRUGGLE has been fought by some of the bravest sons & daughters Africa has ever seen. King Hintsa of the Xhosa died in battle in 1835 fighting in this STRUGGLE. King Sekhukhune of the Pedi people fought bravely against colonisation & daily light robbery of the African land. King Cetshwayo of the Zulu Kingdom fought like a lion that he truely was, ISILO! and gave the British a scarce they’ll never forget when his warrior defeated the British soldiers in the battle of Isandlwana in 1879. Unfortunately the victory was short lived, as the British came back with more force and crushed the mighty Zulu Empire at the Battle of Ulundi the very same year. This event is so important because it officially signalled the beginning of the darkest period in the history of African people in the south of the continent. The Honourable Chief Nelson Mandela took the STRUGGLE baton from these warriors and did his very best with his comrades. They indeed did finally achieve victory in the battle of Apartheid, but the war is not yet won. The land is still in the hands of the minority of the land, and the majority, which is Black people are still living is squalor. It was because of this very reason that Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo all agreed to pass on the baton, and that “It in your hands”.

Iziduko zakwaNtu (Ngokwezizwe zamaNguni asemazantsi)

Xhosa men in tradional clothing talking in a village mountains behind Iziduko zakwaNtu (Ngokwezizwe zamaNguni asemazantsi)Eligama elithi “AmaXhosa” kwezintsuku siphila kuzo lidla ngokusetyenziswa ukuquka unintsi lwezizwe eziseMpuma Koloni. Eneneni iMpuma Koloni inezizwe ngezizwe ezinobuKumkani bazo. Umzekelo: AmaXhosa iKumkani yawo ngu Kumkani u Sigcau, Ahh! Zwelonke! isizukulwana sikaTshawe Komkhulu eNqadu kuGatyana (Willowvale). AbaThembu iKumkani yabo ngu Kumkani u Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo, Ahh! Zwelibanzi! eBumbane Komkhulu eMthatha. Kube kho amaMpondo aseMpuma nawaseNtshona, nawo aneKumkani zawo. Kubekho AmaBhaca akummandla waseMount Frere, nawo aneKumkani nawo uKumkani uMadzikane wesibini Diko, Ahh! Thandisizwe! eLundzini Royal Kraal, eNcunteni.

Kanti AmaMpondo wona aneeKumkani ezimbini, eyamaMpondo aseNtshona eseNyandeni (Port St. Johns) nawaseMpuma eQawukeni (Lusikisiki) neyinzala kaKumkani uFaku ka Ngqungqushe ka Nyawuza ka Thahla ka Ndayeni ka Chithwayo ka Bhala ka Gangatha ka Ciya ka Cabe ka Ncidise ka Msiza ka Tobe ka Ziqelekazi ka Hlambangobubende ka Santsabe ka Mthwa ka Sithula ka Mpondo ka Njanya ka Sibiside.

Iziduko zakwaNtu ngokwezizwe zamaNguni asemazantsi elizwekazi lase Afrika. (Southern Nguni)

 AmaXhosa (Omthonyama)

  • AmaTshawe – Mdange, Tshiwo, Nkosi Yamntu, Ngcwangu
  • AmaKhwemte – Dabane, Gqabaza, Sgadi, Mekhi, Ntswentswe, Fulashe, Nojaholo, Ncibane, Qhanqolo, Ntlokwenyathi, Ngququ, venge.
  • AmaNkabane –  Majeke, Mayeye, Mthiwembotyi, Noqazo, Ndluntsha, Ntleki
  • AmaJwarha - Mtimka, Mazaleni, Jotela, Khatiti, Mnangwe, Mayarha, Mbelu, Ndabase, Bantw’abahle noba bapheth’ izikhali,
  • AmaKwayi -  Ngconde, Togu, Ubulawi, Ngcond’oneentshaba
  • AmaCirha - ooNcibane, Khawuta, Nojaholo, Mhlantla, Nyembezana, Mhlathendlovu, uDlakalashe, Ntswentswe, Qhanqolo, Ntlokwenyani, Sihlobo SikaPhalo, Hloml’iphuthi lidala linempondo, MGcaleka
  • KrilaMbamba, Thangana, Bodlinja, Mbamba, Krila, Rhaso, Mbombo, Gcaleka, Nkomo zibomvu namathol’azo, Nqele, Bhurhu, Mayisithe, Nomazele,  Gobingca, bhukuxa umthondo uwujongise emntwini
  • Qocwa – Zikhali Mazembe, Jojo, Tiyeka, Butsolo Beentonga, Mbizana, Mabombo
  • Mtakwenda – Leta, Libele, Tyebelendle, Ngcwadi, Kwangeshe, Mentuko, Mboyi, Solizembe
  • Thangana – Krila,Mtengwana, Rhaso, M’bamba, Bodlinja, Gobingca
  • Tyani – Mduma, Mbengo, Gabela, Zotsho.


  • MadibaDlomo, Madiba, Yem-Yem, Vela bambhentsele, Sophitsho, Ngqolomsila, Tubhana, Qhumpase, Ntande, MThembu, Ncikoza, Mtshikilana, Malangana, Bhomoyi.
  • AmaNtande – Dlomo, Sopitsho, Ngqolomsila, Zondwa ziintshaba
  • mQithi - Ndinga, Nkomo ayizali izala ngokuzaliswa, uRhadu, uNomsobodwana, uSopitsho uNgqolomsila uYemyem uVela bembhentsele, Zondwa, MThembu)
  • Ndungwana – u Bhejula uDiya uMaqath’ alukhuni, uVelabembhentsele uHala.
  • amaNgxongo, oontsundu, bhomoyi zondwa zintshaba, osophitsho.
  • AmaGcinaXhamela, Helushe, Ncancashe, Magwebulikhula, Malambedlile, Nokwindla, Thyopho ka Phato owathyaphakela eXonxa , Gabul’ ikhula, Malamb’ayendle aty’ igusha athi ziz’ duli zethafa, Nxego, Butsolo beentonga, Dlelanga, Ntlonipho (Bahamba bepheth’isali – ihashe bakulifuman’emlungwini, izinto zabantu abazibi koko bayazigcini, bathi iigusha ziziduli zentaba)
  • Qhudeni – UMthembu, uThukela, uQhudeni, uMkhubukeni, uGoza, uMpafane, uMthembu obhuzuzu, odla amathibane az ‘indlala iwile.
  • Maya – oMaya, oYem Yem oSophitsho, oMagwa, oNgqolomsila, oBhomoyi
  • Mpangela -Mvinjwa, Rhoshana, Ndlazi, Dlomo, Sibetho, Magwala, Gwadzi elisilika bubuhle.
  • Mpemvu – uJali ,uJuda, uNtlotshane, Bumela, uNgciva
  • Ndala – Ndala ka Momamana, uMncotshe, Msunu Sdumbu, Thole, Ngxunga Smukumuku, Ndithinina )


  • Gebe (Mgebe/ Hegebe) –
  • Tshezi – uTshezi, uTenza, uFakade, uSaliwa, uJalamba, uSkhabela, uCetshane, Mqal’ ongangenduku, Njilo-njilo kuya ngaselwandle, Nkonjan’emnyama ibhabha emafini, uKhayi, uGagashe into ka Ganya, uNdela, uNeneza, iNkonjane emnyama ebhab’ emafini, iinzwana zakwaBomvana, iinto ezinomkhitha kodwa zimithond’wemide, iNyoka emnyama ecanda isiziba, uMkhonto, uMalala nentombi ivuke ithi bhuti ndizeke noba kungeshumi leesheleni, inkosi ezingazange zibutheng’ubokhosi. Zinto ezityafileyo ingathi zidla umcuku.
  • Gqwarhu – omhlophe, Khawu, Ntenge, Mtabasa ka Dingana, Jalamba


  • AmaGiqwa –  Mvamba, Jingqi, Jikijwa
  • OoSithathu – Chisana, Ndebe, Hase
  • AmaNqarhwane –  Ziduli, Hintsabe
  • AmaSukwini –  Dibashe, Lawu
  • Tshonyane, Chungwa, Dikiza, Sawu, Tota, Simke, Khwane, Hani, Zulu, Mthuzimele,  Gqunukhwebe, Nkomo z’bomvu .
  • Cethe – Chizama, Mlanjana, Bhurhuma, Ncenceza, Mbambo zinomongo, yint’ety’inyama ekrwada, uHani, malahl’aluthuthu ayatshisa wawanyathela ungafa
  • Gqunu
  • amaGqwashu
  • Sithathu


  • AmaNgqosini -  Gaba, Mjobi, Thithiba, Cihoshe, Nozinga, Mnt’womlambo, Thikoloshe, Ndoko, Mbokodw’emnyama Kahili, Msuthu)
  • AmaMfene – Hlathi, Lisa, Jambase, Sanzanza, Canzi, Buswayo, Zangomva eliweni, Msuthu.
  • AmaMvundle –  Ncilashe, Msuthu, Bhayi, Khetshe, Mkhumbeni
  • Mvulane – Umsuthu, Mvulane, Ncilashe, Nyok”emnyam’ecandiziziba, Nja ziyaf’lathena ngathi azifunani kanti zenzimikhuba, Vumba lempongo liyanuka, Ozalwa nguThamsanqa, ozalwa nguSmamane, kaMvimbi, kaMaxambele, Phezu koMbhashe, kwintili zeBityi. Lufafa olude!!! Umdak’omnyama ongeva sepha.. Zithini ezakho izibongo? Enye indlu yaseMamvulaneni,
  • Mkhumbeni – Bhayi, Khetshe, Vundle, Ncilashe, Inyok’emnyama ecandiziziba, uGwaca, uMevamhlophe, uCamsholo, uNomtshoni, umthokrakra ongatyiwa nazibhokhwe, uZawukana, uMsuthu..
  • Maduna – Nokhala, Msuthu, Gubevu, Jiyane, Mpungushe, Mandl’amakhulu, Sivunguvung’ esawis’ indoda emahlangeni, imamba kandidini ngoba ngimesabile, uNokhala owawela ngempalazo eyaphalazwa ngamadoda, Maduna omuhle ngekhala lakhe, isilo esinamadevu emlonyeni, Ngaculende emabalabala njenge ngwe, iinkomo ezingqukuva azibuyi emzini xa bekulotyolwe ngazo, Ngub’engcuka, Tiba,  Mvelase, Salathiso, Novikothek’ukuthetha, Mlamb’unqolintaba, UMaduna owaqengqeleka kwiintaba zoLundi wawela umlambo Ithukela ebhinqe izikhakha. Madun’edakeniiii!!!! Malobola ngez’ngadane osaba ezine’mpondo zahlaba abakhwekazi. Laduma izulu uMagqakaza ubengasekho ekhaya!!!
  • Gambu – Memela, Msuthu Nontuli, Ngwekazi
  • Ndzaba – Msuthu, Bhili, Mancoba, Gase, Mwelase, into ezehla ezintabeni/ezinkahlambeni zishubele ngenqatha lehashe…
  • AmaNtshilibe – Aphuma kwisizwe samaSuthu ekuthiwa ngabaKwena. AmaNtshilibe aqala abusa kumaMpondo asuka emka apho aya emaXhoseni.  Kuthiwa xa ebongwa: Bhanqo, Nondize, Bobese, Ncangase.


  • OoNyawuza –  Nyawuza – Faku ofakayo, ungathi uyifakile kanti uyikade eboyeni, Yindlana, Dakhile, Thahla,  Ndayeni, Mpondo, Hlamba ngobubend’amanz’ekhona
  • AmaNtlane –  Mfusana, Ndendela, Gxididi
  • AmaZangwa – Khwalo, Mlanjana, Ncuthu, Sohobese, ooNkuma
  • Khwalo – Mzangwa, Ncuthu, Mlanjana, Mpondozephela, Ungqoqwana, Sohebese
  • Khwetshube
  • Tshomane
  • Khiwa - Qwebeda, Khonjwayo,Ngcekula, Ndzondela, Hlaka, Ngetu, Phoswa, Silwanyana, Makalanyana, Sikhehlana
  • Khonjwayo – uChithwayo uzala uKhonjwayo, uKhonjwayo azale uKhiwa, uKhiwa uzele uNgcekula(Inkosi eyayiphethe ngexesha lakudala ihlonitshiwe)uNgcekula uzele uNdzondela kwindlu yake enkulu(Great House) ,noNtsikinyani ekunene(Right House).UNdzondela wazala uHlaka, uHlaka wazala uNgetu, uNgetu wazala uPhoswa, uPhoswa wazala uSilwanyana, uSilwanyana wazala uMakalanyana, uMakalanyana wazala uSikhehlana, uSikhehlana yena uzala uTatana. Ngoku singena kwinzala yendlu yasekunene kaNgcekula, uNtsikinyana uzele uMakhanda, uMakhanda wazala uNogemane kwiGreat House, kwiRight house wazala uThungana. Masiqale kwindlu enkulu, uNogemane uzele uGwadiso(Dumile), uGwadiso wazala uGodloza, uGodloza yena wazala uNtenteni, uNtenteni wazala uGobizithwana(uZwelidumile) waza ke yena uGobizithwana wazala uDumisani inkosi enkulu ephethe isizwe samaKhonjwayo ngoku. Kanti ke uThungana yena wobunene buka Makhanda uzele uSithelo, uSithelo wazala uPhonyela, uPhonyela wazala uMakhizinyani, uMakhizinyani yena wazala uHlathikhulu, uHlathikhulu yena uzala uThulani.


  • Jola – Mphankomo, Jolinkomo, Phahlo, Qengeba, Mthwakazi, Sabe, Ndleb’endlovu, Mzi welanga. Somarhwarhwa, Ngwanya, Somadolo, Zwelibanzi, Marholisa, Nomakhala, Njuza, Sthukuthezi, sithandwa mhla kukubi, hoshode, hakaha, mfaz’ obele ‘nye omabele made, oncancisa naphesheya komlambo. Yeyesa, Chirwa, Lembethe, Mgema, Mfaz’obelelide, Gcuma, Ndzabela, Thole lenkwakha, Isibhekubhu esibhebhesha sakulo Yokazi. EsiMpondo zisibhebhelele Ngubholokodl’uphila kuzenzela Mayaba, Ngubo ayinxitywa, Mbarha, Bhukhana, Hobo, Zwelibanzi, Zanemvula, Vambane, Ithole lomthwakazi, Mqeke, thayithayi kade bemthibela, mpumlo engqongqosholo njengengulube, ubholokodlela kuphila kuzenzela
  • Debeza – OoJebe, Nonyanya, Nongoqo, Mbeka, Ntshiyini Bathi uqumbile, Khonkcoshe Mbokodo engava mkwetsho, Xwebisa, Nomanjiya, Mgod’ongeva mkhwitsho, Shleka nanja, Longw’elingacholwa nangabafazi. (ubuKumkani bamaMpondomise bulapha, kummandla wase Tsolo, Qumbu & Mthatha)
  • AmaQadi – Dosini, Ngwenya, Ngcwina
  • AmaMpinga -  Senzwa, Mawawa, Wawuzile, Bholokoqoshe, Ntoyomntwana ingaphuma uboya ilingene abadala, ingaxhonywa exhantini seyiyeyezinja (ooMpinga ngamaMpondomise uMpinga uzalwa nguNtose)
  • AmaMpehle – Vengwa, Dikana, Cabashe, Nohushe
  • Skhomo – Umntu womlambo,Tshangisa, Mhlatyana, Rhudulu, uNxub’ongafiyo ofa ngokuvuthelwa, Mngwevu, Jola, Manz’amnyama, Qengebe, Mhaga, Oshode, uNjanye, uNcuku, Zitha, Ngcengane, Bodlinyama, Nonkasa, Ufak’inyama emlanjeni iphum’ivuthiwe, uWashota, intonga yokugqugqisa amankazana phezu komlanjana. Njuza, Nabela Mntwini, Gaduka, Mduma, Zulu khaya labangcwele, Mngwevu, Mpondomise, Ath’amanyamadoda ebal’inkomo abe yena ebal’inkwenkwezi. Isilo somlambo apho zihlelikhona ingwevu zethu ziphulula uswazi lokuqeqesha oomakoti zibafundisa ukuhlonipha ikhaya. Omathandwa mhla kukubi, Hlakanakwena!
  • Gxarha -Cwerha, Vambane, Mahlahla, Mlawu, Potwana
  • AmaNgxabane
  • OoNgcitshana
  • OoNxotha
  • AmaQadi – Dosini, Mqadi, Ngqwili, Nondlobe,Ngcwina, Ngwenya
  • OoGcanga
  • OoDosini
  • Nxuba - Mduma, Rhudulu, Mngcengane
  • AmaNgwevu
  • OoQhinebe – Gqugqugqu, Zithonga-zithathu, Haha, Njemnyama, Nondela, Phazima, Mpondomise, Mlunjwa, Phalela, Mkhomanzi, Duka namahlathi, Umth’ omde owavelela eHoyita!
  • OoMhaga – (noSabe, Amawel’ukuzana, uQwetha noGqubushe)
  • OoMabhengu
  • OoMnjuza
  • OoBhukwana – ooMbara, Mtshobo, Phaphulengonyama, Into ezingaphathwa mntu ngoba zizinkosi ngokwazo
  • OoZongozi - ooSenzela ooPhondo liyagexeza (bazalwa nguNtose kaCirha ikumkani yamaMpondomise, hayi lo wamaXhosa)
  • OoNdobe
  • OoFola
  • OoNxasana – NguSikonza, uNxasana, uTotoba, uDunjane, uMalilelwaziintombi zithi ndizeke, adinamama andinatata, uBhili, uMagazo, uLunguza, gastyeketye umbona obomvu othandwa ngabantwana
  • OoNqana
  • OoDedeza
  • OoKrancolo
  • Magoba – ooNziphazi,
  • Mpehle
  • Skhoji – (Inzala ka William Saunders wase Scotland)
  • AmaNdila – Ndila , Nyezile, Qangaza kawongqili, Ndlwan’inisematyeni,  Ndulin’ophezulu,Mndini, Fulela kunetha,Tshunguza, Cekwana,Gadluma, Tshutsha, Simnde, Mtshakazi, Phaphu lengonyama, Jamel’ijekeja, Msili kaNonceba, Roqolombashe, Nomatsinyane, Nomathebe, Mpondomise.

AmaMfengu (aquka amanye kumaHlubi, amaBhele, amaZizi, amaNgwane, etc.)

  • Maduna – Gubevu, Nokhala
  • Nkomo – Mntungwa, Khumalo
  • Nkwali (Mfengu/Hlubi) – Bhukula, Mkhwanazi, Nkwali ye Nkosi
  • Tolo – AmaTolo akwaNongwandla,Tolo, Nongwandla, Mchenge, MaBhanekazi, Ngwenyankomo, Dlangamandla, Zulu, Masali, Mfingo, Amajubantlantsi, Vumba lempongo liyanuka, Nozinja Ziyakhonkotha kuba zithi: Hawu! Hawu! Hawu! Xa zibon’ umnt’ ozayo, Nozinja ziyaqhingana kanti zenz’ umntwana, Umlamb’ awuwelwa uwelwa ziinkonjane kuphela zona zimaphiko made, Nkomo zikaGaxaza, Oonkuni azothiwa kuba zithezwe yinkosazana, Bona babasa amadaka eenkomo zabo, Izinto ezifuye inkomo zafuya negusha nehashe.
  • Dlamini (Zizi) – Zizi, Jama kaSjadu, Mabetshe, Bhanise, Ngxib’inoboya, Fakade, khatsini, mtikitiki, nomana ndab’azithethwa intsuku ngentsuku,bhengu, nonyathi
  • Shweme – Gqagqane, Limakhwe, Zilamkhonto, Mfene, Hlathi, Jambase, Ngangamsholo Ngcebetsha, Malilelwa zintombi
  • Ndlangisa – Thole, Gqagqane, Mcaca, Buzini, Welane, Ndlangisa, Nkonjane, Mfingo, Thombeni, Mzimshe, Lwandl aluwelwa, luwelwa ziNkonjane zona ma phiko made, uMpundeshe, uKhweleta, uDuma
  • Jama - Sijadu, Fakade, Njokweni, Ngxilinoboya, Dlamini, Zizi
  • Miya - Gcwanini, Sibewu, Sijekula, Salakulandelwa
  • Khumalo – Mntungwa, Okhatshwe ngezind’izinyawo, Nangezimfushanyana, UMkhatshwa wawoZimangele, Mbulaz’omnyama, Abathi bedl’umuntu, Bebe bemyenga ngendaba. Abadl’izimf’ezimbili, Ikhambi laphuma lilinye. Lobengula kaMzilikazi, UMzilikazi kaMashobana, Shobana noGasa kaZikode, Zikode kaMkhatshwa. Mabaso owabas’entabeni, Kwadliwa ilanga lishona Bantungw’abancwaba! Zindlovu ezibantu, Zindlovu ezimacocombela. Nina bakwaMawela, Owawel’iZambezi ngezikhali. Nina bakaNkomo zavul’inqaba. Zavul’inqaba ngezimpondo, KwelaseNgome. UNkone evele ngobus’ emdibini, Nina enal’ukudl’umlenze KwaBulawayo! Mantungwa aluhlaza! Mantungw’amahle! Bantwana benkosi, Nina bakwaNtokela! Inkubele abayihlabe ngamanxeba, Abamkhule ngezinyawo ezimfushanyana, Nezimaqhukulwana. Inyang’ abathe beth’ ifil’uZulu, Kanti isiyetheswe, Yetheswe ngoNyakana ka Mpeyana. UBando abalubande balushiy’ uZulu. UNyama yentini yawo Zimangele. UNkomo zavul’inqaba ngezimpondo, Ngoba zavul’iNgome zahamba. UNtshwintshwintshwi kaNoyanda noNdaba. Ndabezitha!
  • Nozulu, Thukela, Mchumane, Mbanguba, Kheswa, Mpangazitha, Macocobela yena onempundu ezincinci ezifuna uncanyiswa, Qhudeni, Mvelase, Mathibane, Ngoza, Sonyangashe, Makhonz’ egoduka, Mfazi uncancisa usana ngebele elinye, Thukela umlambo ongawelwayo uwelwa ziinkonjane zodwa, zona zidlisela ngamaphiko
  • Ndlela – uNdlela, uMatyeni, uNongobe, isilila gazi njengoba abanye belila iinyembezi, bakhama indoba yanyela emphandeni, amaNala amnandi njengebele likabelenyane, bhekuza enkundleni kwadadeboyise umNtambose
  • AmaBhele – (asuka kwintaba yeLenge, baqhekeke kathathu kuMaliwa, Donga nakuSiphahla-phahla,uDonga noSiphahla-phahla bangenela kumaZulu babangabakwaNtuli,uMaliwa weza kwaGcaleka,uMabandla wehlela kwaGcaleka,uMabandla waya kwaRharhabe,Bhunta uGatsheni/Gatyeni uzalwa nguNdlovu kaMasoka(Masombuka))
  • Gatyeni – Mamali,ndondela,nkomo zibomvu,nywabe, indoda uyivumi nepokoto, ocubungu)
  • Mbanjwa
  • Ndlovu – Mntungwa Gengesi Malunga Mancoba (zidlekhaya ngokuswela umalusi)
  • Skhosana – Skhosana, Novaphi, Mntungwa, Ntuthwana, msikamhlanga, uNtuthu uyeaqhuma zonke izizwe zabikelana zathi ngabakwaSkhosana. Dung
  • Xolo - Dunywa, Nzimakhwe, Thuse, Ntshuntshe,  Manci, Zotsho
  • Zulu – Ntombhela, Mahlahlula emaduneni, Tshaka


Hlubi, Bhungane, Bhungane kaNsele, Zikode!Bhungane wenza ngakuningi, Makhulukhulu, Umkhulu Nkulunkulu kodwa awunganga Bhungane, UNkulunkulu uziqu zintathu, kodwa uBhungane uziqu zingamakhulukhulu, Mthimkhulu, Mashiya amahle, amade anjenge nyamazane, Mafuz’ afulele njengelifu lemvula, mashubel’esavela. S’goloza esimehlo abomvu esibheka umuntu kubengathi siyamujamela, Ndlubu ezamila ebubini bamadoda, Ndlubu ezamila emthondweni (kwasothondose)
Nina enindlebe zikhanya iLanga, Nina enindlebe zinhle zombili, Nina bosiba olude olungakhothami ndlwaneni kodwa kwezinde luyakhothama, Nina omagawula imithi emincane emikhulu ivele iziwele
Mahlubi amahle,  MaNgelengele amahle, Nina maHlubi anzipho zimnyama ngokuqhwayana
Mashwabade owashwabadela inkomo kanye nezimpondo zayo

  • Rhadebe (Bhungane, Mthimkhulu, Ndlebentle’zombini, Makhulukhulu, Mafuz’ afulele njengelifu lemvula, Mashwabada owashwabadel’ inkomo nempondo zayo, Mbucwa, Zikode
  • Dontsa - oNoDlidlu, oNoDlabathi, oSwahla, oMntungwa uNdukuMkhonto, uShembe, bath’ uDontsa akananyongo kant’ abay’bon’ uba igqunywe ngesbhadlalala so mhlehlo
  • Nkwali (Mfengu/Hlubi) – Bhukula, Mkhwanazi, Nkwali ye Nkosi, Enyon’ engadliwa ngabafokazana idliwa ngamakhosi. Buz’ elikhul’ elagedl’ umhlanga, Kwavel’ amaBuz’ abuzwana. NgabakwaNongubo-ntloko. Abanye bazitetil’ abanye bazithwele. Inkwali yintak’ engcondo zibomvu Edla ikhethe lomfula (Nkwali uzala u Maphela no Mlabatheki , uMlabatheki azale u Bhukula)
  • Kheswa – noZulu, Mpafane, Mchumane, Mpangazitha, Macocobela, Mbanguba, Thukela


  • Zulu – OoZulu, Khalimeshe, Nofisa ongafi, ofa ngamaloyo. Mageba Ndabezitha ,  ooNombuso ooVebi ooWabane. Mafula ngesibumbu ngexa yokuswela ingobozi, Notibunwana etincane ngokwuswela tona, onato ufute kulo nyoko, Thole leSilo ngoba yiSilo ngokwaso…
  • Wushe – ooMjoli, Phathwa, Wushe, Qubulashe, Mthsi owathsi ukuwa wabhekisa amasebe eThukela, Nonkasa, Mbedu, omaphungel’ esosini amakomitshi ekhona, masindza ngonwalu itizwana tisindza ngobulongwe, Godongwana kaMjoli ka Bekwa kaWushe ka Lufulwenja kaMageba.
  • Mjoli – Qubulashe, Indlu kaSondzaba, Hlathi, Nonina, Mswanzeli, Nokholwa wokwakhe, Wabane, Maqholo, Mthi owathi ukuwa wabekisa amasebe eThukela, Nyawo, Danisa, Ntundzela, uMalandelwa zintombi zithi ndizeke, Babalo, mzimvubu, Izotshw’elihle, Uphika-nelanga, uNoma-ndzondzo, uMshwawu, uDlilanga, oBuso bumnyama ngathi sisonka sojiwe
  • AmaChiya – ooGalweni, ooChiya wohlanga, Sodladla, Magangadz’ udonga kuvuleke indlela ,cwangu cwangu.
  • AmaMpovane - Siwela, Vitsheka, Matalankosi,  Songiwe, Nomlakalakane, Gubudza Nyamana
  • AmaNqolo – amaNqolo,  oaGaba kathsayithsi omahlambahlaletsheni ngenxa yokuswel’itawuli, abantu abangayekhathsi imbola ngoba bahleli bebahle, bakhi bexonya bangaleluki
  • AmaNcwabe
  • AmaJili  – ooMaseng’ inkomo noba ilele ngenxayokuthsandza intusi
  • Mweli (Jili, Msingawuthi, Ngqambela, Sibakhulu, Ntlangwini’s enebathat yaseMakhuzeni)
  • AmaNdlangisa – Thole, Gqagqane, Buzini, Ndlangisa, Mzimshe, Lwandle
  • AmaTshezi – Jalamba, Mqalungangenduku,
  • AmaTolo – ooTolo, ooDlangamandla, Mchenge Mabhanekazi
  • AmaJuta - OoJuta, Mencwa, Sjekula
  • AmaGusha
  • AmaNjilo – Manci, Mkhonde, iS’khonde esikrakrayo, iNdlovu esikwa ihambha, Vela bethetha, Njilo, Balisa, Debule, Msokweni, Silwa nenkunzi mbini, Kubhej’umsobomvu, Wabane, Tyani, Bhekiso, Ndlov’edli goduka, Mbali, Mdludla odludl’amthambek’ebhek’othukela, Qolo, Zotsho, Mabandla kamaqolo, Maqolo engqelezintabeni, Tshitshis’intaba, Mdludla ka Bekiso, Zinde Zinde, Zinemiqala engenamqala sisilima
  • AmaKhambule – Khambule Mncube Mayela omalandelwa yintombi ithsi bhuti nditeke
  • AmaMbotho – Juqu, Juleka, , Mlibati, Matala Nkosi, Sigwamba sentswangu, NgqizaZibutha kandaka-ndaka, Mbotho
  • AmaDladla
  • AmaBhele – Dlambulo, Khuboni, Qunta, Mafu, Langa, Mnomana, Mbutho, Ncwana, noNtanda kuphakanyiswa, Ulanga lokulunga, Umbutho, noMbikazi ngob’umnt’ogxathu akalahlwa,  umafuza afulele njengelifu, Ndabezitha, uNtshangase, Madiba-ndlela. Iinto ezidiba de zidibe nendlela, Unontanda Usengel’abantwana xa likhithika, unosepha ayigijimi iyakhokhoba ukubhek’ eluqala, undamane, amyengane, amayekethe, Undlwana zinamaphela phez’ukwentab kalenge, othebul’ukunatha nje ngabendl’enkulu Umakhunga, unkilane, umabandla, uvaphi, Iintw’ezimpundu zinga zingongiwa, Amatya egoduka khon’ukuze angathinjwa lithambo lasemzin, nditsh’abaty’isikhwebu sakwamkhwekazi, kwaNoqambulo, Iintw’ezingawutyiyo umbilini wempahla, ezity’owenyamakazi yon’ihlal’emahlathini; Iinyath’ezasind’abazingeli sebezosele, Ingab’asilobhele elo, ngoba ibhele laphekwa nelitye lenyengane, lavuthwa ilitye, lasala ibhele lihleli, amaBhele izinto eziqhwanyaza ngemali. Zibunywana zibutshelezana zinga zingazingangiwa ngabakhwekazi, Bhedlana lase Lenge, amaBhele asicoco sinuka intsindwana amakrokrozela njengelifu lemvula, Mphemba abantu Bephemba ngamabele kanti abafokazana baphemba ngamaphepha, Silo sase Lenge ngwane yezixhobo zothukela, umthan’ ontyingantyingana omi phezu kwentaba, Inyathi eyasinda abazingeli sebeyosele izinto ezingawudliyo umbilini wenkomo,zidla owenyamakazi
  • AmaGamedze – Gamedze, Mntimande, Bhambolunye tingaba mbini tifute ekhaya kulonyoko
  • AmaHlubi – (hayi isizwe samaHlubi kaLangalibalile, kodwa itibonga nabantu ababesuka kwisizwe samaHlubi)umzekelo ooRhadebe – Mafuz’ afulele njengefu lemvula! Mashwabada,  owashwabadel’ inkomo kanye nempondotayo!
  • AmaDlamini – (hayi isizwe samaDlamini, kodwa abanye abantu bakwaDlamini ngesiduko)
  • AbakwaMasoka
  • AmaXesibe – (hayi abantu besizwe samaXesibe kaXesibe wakuloMpondo noMpondomise, kodwa kukhona abantu abangena phasi kukaMadzikane bamaXesibe) oo Ncosa ooBhuku Sinqashe Nkamangane Mfazi webelelide elancelisa ingane phesheya komfula uMganu Sabela wabizwa emazibukweni Xesibe
  • AmaBhovu – ooDumela oMvaw’bhekwa ubhekwa abawatiyo ooGxumisa
  • AmaNguse – ooFola Fakade Mabembe khabekhulu Fol’odlilaxa Nguse Ngubezizwe unyawunyawu
  • AmaGebashe -
  • AmaDzana – OoDzana oKhatsini omncwabe omfupi
  • Sinama – Rhadu, Mjoli, Somadoda, Fikeni, Nhlumayo, Gcuma, Malandelwa yintombi ithi ndizeke noba kungesipha samazimba, Iintombi ezinamadhusu amhlophe ngathi zihlamba ngobisi, Wulawula mathole endlovu


  • Xesibe – Nxanda kaXesibe, Mnune Mkhuma, Nondzaba, Mbathane, Nondize, Bhelesi, Matshaya ngenqaw’ende abanye betshaya ngezimfutshane, Nxele, Bhimbi, Khandanyawana, Mayitshin’eyibheka njengomntwana, Mantsaka, Mganu. Nondzaba, Mbathane, Tshomela ka Matsho
  • Qwathi - Dikela, Noni, Noqaz’ indlela. Iinkomo zikaXesibe, zikaJojo, zikaMtshutshumbe, ogqaz’indlel’ebhek’ebuNguni.  KumaQwathi kukho amaDikela, amaTshaba, ooSdindi, ooBhlangwe, ooBhose, amaNzolo, imiNcayi, amaNtondo, amaKhombayo, ooMkhondweni, amaVumbe, ooKhebesi, amaBangula, amaDumba, ooMhotho, ooCakeni, ooBhabha, amaMvala, amaDabisa, ooS’ximba, etc.
  • Mambi - Nxontsa ka Xesibe, uBhulingwe kuvele imamba, uNtabazikude zikuMganu, Mntshontsho, uSabela uyabizwa emazibukweni)
  • Matshaya – Mbathane

Izingane zooMa (by Xolile Mgijima)

Xhosa mother and child Umama Nomntwana SL 2009 DUGGANCRONIN 16 691x1024 Izingane zooMa (by Xolile Mgijima)Thina sizingane zooMa

Thina sizingane zomama beAfrika

Thina sizingane zeendlezanekazi, intw’ezimibele mid’ebhonxe kunene

Siyinzala yezikhukukaz’ezimaphik’amabalabala,

Iimbelukazi zesizwe, imidak’emihle kunene

Siyinzala yomama besintu oomama bakwaNtu

Thina sizingane Zooma

Thina sizingane zomama

Sizingane zamaqhawekazi  iinkokheli zelizwe,

Izisele zenyathi eziphuphuma lulwazi nemfundiso

Int’ezifunde zade zayityekeza eyaseAfrik’imfundo

Int’eziyazi ukusuka nokuhlala imbali yomdak’omnyama

ooNolwazi kaloku kuba bayincanca lento koonina

ooNtozonke bizamna ndikuncede

Thina sizingane Zooma


Ibhonxil’imibele nzalandini kaNtu

Walamba nj’imibel’ivuza kutheni?

Wagodola nj’amaphik’esikhukukaz’ekhona kutheni?

Wamkhanyel’unyoko nje kutheni?

Wahamb’ucel’amalizo nje kutheni?

Wazibiz’impula kaluJaca nj’unomzali kutheni?

Owu! Yhini na mliselandini kaAfrika

Yhini na mthinjanandini  kaNtu

Walahl’imbo yakho ngophoyiyana nje kutheni?

Thina sizingane zooMa


Vuka thongorhandini kusile

Vuka vilandini kusile

Wabeth’ithatha nj’emini emaqanda kutshaphi?

Yimfundiso yaphi na le kakhongozela

Wancanc’umbel’esaqhaga senkom’enqoma nje kutheni?

Uz’ungalibali k’ukuba lent’iyinkomo yenqoma yintseng’ibheka

Kazi bakuyithath’abaniniyo wosala nani na?

Vuka Afrika kusile

Thina sizingane zooMa


Owu! Koda kubenini sizw’esimnanyama?

Koda kubenini siziimpumputhela?

Koda kubenini sivum’iingoma zoluny’uhlanga

Koda kubenini sikhwaz’umdali weentlanga?

Siluhlanga lunin’olungavani nobuhlanga balo?

Siluhlanga lunin’olungafun’ukwazi ngemvelaphi yalo?

Buya nzalandini kaAfrik’unyok’ukulindile

Thina sizingane zooMa

Thina sizingane zoooMa


MaXhosa by Laduma Ngxokolo (Fashion Designer)

Laduma Ngxokolo Founder of the Maxhosa mens knitwear label MaXhosa by Laduma Ngxokolo (Fashion Designer)As we commemorate Youth Month and remember the heroes of 1976 in Soweto were game changers for South Africa’s future. We also celebrate another young person who is a game-changer, in a similar fashion with that of the youth of 1976. Laduma Ngxokolo is a young South African clothing designer who incorporates his own Xhosa culture into his knitwear designs. He started his brand MAXHOSA by Laduma in early 2011 with a thirst to find knitwear design solutions for amakrwala (Xhosa initiates). His vision was to create a modern Xhosa-inspired knitwear collection that would be suitable for amakrwala, who are prescribed by tradition to dress up in new dignified formal clothing for six months after initiation. As a person who has undergone that process himself, he felt that he had to develop knitwear that genuinely depicts his cultural aesthetics. Along his journey into exploring astonishing traditional Xhosa beadwork craft, patterns, tribal symbolism and colours he discovered that they would be the best inspiration for his knitwear, which he then incorporated into modern knitwear and has since continued to captivate audiences both locally and internationally.

Laduma uses locally sourced textiles like Mohair and uses the patterns found in traditional African beadwork as his inspiration. Recently Laduma has branched out to include patterned rugs, cushions and blankets. This year, he expanded his brand even more by starting a women’s line called ‘Buyele’mbo’.

Laduma Ngxokolo is from Port Elizabeth and he studied textile design and technology at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. He was taught hand machine knitting by his late mother, Lindelwa Ngxokolo in Grade 8 and he has been doing knitwear as a hobby since his days in high school as it was also one of his subjects.

maxhosa by Laduma Ngxokolo MaXhosa by Laduma Ngxokolo (Fashion Designer)In 2010, he did his BTech and wrote his thesis project on ‘finding innovative designs for Xhosa initiatives to wear’. 2010 was also the year he started his knitwear brand and by using his thesis project he entered an international competition called “The Society of Dyers and Colourists” and won, which was a big turning point for him. This gave him the opportunity to speak about his project at Design Indaba Conference 2011 one of the most critically acclaimed design conferences held in Cape Town every year, which led to a lot of positive press coverage. This ultimately helped him establish his knitting brand in February 2011. In July 2013 another big turning point came, a showcase of his 2013 range My Heritage My Inheritance in Paris. “It was one of my most overwhelming moments. My mom always wanted us to go to Paris.  She was obsessed with Paris. I felt that I fulfilled her fantasy in a way, through me, whatever she desired as a young black women living in South African, it was done though me, that’s why I dedicated the collection to her,” he says.

Laduma Ngxokolo on stage in Amsterdam Holland MaXhosa MaXhosa by Laduma Ngxokolo (Fashion Designer)In May this year Laduma and his sister Tina Ngxokolo, also a fashion designer, were sharing a platform with some of the world’s greatest designers at the “What Design Can Do” conference in Amsterdam, Netherlands, with designers from the UK, Mexico, South Africa, Sweden and the Netherlands and the British fashion icon Sir Paul Smith a guest speaker at the event.

Some of his plans for the near future are to have MaXhosa concept stores Johannesburg, Cape Town, London and Paris.

We wish Laduma Ngxokolo all the very best in his endeavors, he is one young person that is making African Culture in general and Xhosa Culture in particular relevant in the 21st century and has shown that there is a lot we can learn from our past that would help us carve a path as we move forward… MaXhosa – My Heritage My Inheritance.

Keep updated with Laduma Ngxokolo at, on Twitter or on Facebook