Iziduko

Iziduko nezithakazelo nezinqulo zamaXhosa – Xhosa Clan Names

Amadoda amaGQUNUKHWEBE IzidukoXhosa clan names (isiduko (sing.), iziduko (pl.) in Xhosa) are family names which are considered more important than surnames among Xhosa people. Much like the clan system of Scotland, each Xhosa person can trace their family history back to a specific male ancestor or stock. Mentioning the clan name of someone you wish to thank is the highest form of respect, and it is considered polite to enquire after someone’s clan name when you meet them. The clan name is also sometimes used as an exclamation by members of that clan. When a woman marries she may take her husband’s surname, but she always keeps her own clan name, adding the prefix Ma- to it. A man and a woman who have the same clan name may not marry, as they are considered to be related. Clan names A few clan names of amaXhosa and related ethnic groups include:

  • Bhayi (Khetshe, Mkhumbeni, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)
  • Bhele (divides into several sub-clan groups: Dongo, Langa, etc.)
  • Bhukhwana (ooMbara, Mtshobo, Phaphulengonyama, Into ezingaphathwa mntu ngoba zizinkosi ngokwazo)
  • Cethe (ooChizama)
  • Cirha (ooNcibane, Nojaholo, Ntswentswe, Qhanqolo, Sihlobo SikaPhalo, Hlomla lidala lineempondo, MGcaleka) by AD
  • Deyi
  • Debeza – OoDebeza, ngoJebe, Nonyanya, Nongoqo, Mbeka Ntshiyini Bathi uqumbile, Khonkcoshe Mbokodo engava mkwetsho (These are royalty in the Amampondomse group. Their main concentration is in the former Transkei, in Tsolo, Qumbu and Umthatha in the Eastern Cape.)
  • Dlamini (or Zizi,Jama kaSjadu, Mabetshe, Bhanise, Ngxib’inoboya, Fakade the clan name of Thabo Mbeki, khatsini, mtikitiki, nomana ndab’azithethwa intsuku ngentsuku,bhengu, nonyathi an Mfengu subgroup)
  • Mdlane, Tutuse, Mdimba
  • Dlomo (different lines, Thembu or Hlubi subgroups)
  • Dontsa - oNoDlidlu, oNoDlabathi, oSwahla, oMntungwa uNdukuMkhonto, uShembe, bath’ uDontsa akananyongo kant’ abay’bon’ uba igqunywe ngesbhadlalala so mhlehlo… (Hlubi clan)
  • Dosini
  • Duma (Nxuba)
  • Faku (Nyawuza, Thahla, Ndayeni, Mpondo, Hlamba ngobubend’amanz’ekhona)
  • Gaba (Mngqosini, Mjobi, Thithiba, Cihoshe, Nozinga, Mnt’womlambo, Thikoloshe, Ndoko, Mbokodw’emnyama Kahili, Msuthu)
  • Gadluma
  • Gambu (Memela, Msuthu Nontuli, Ngwekazi)
  • Ganu
  • Gatyeni (Mamali,ndondela,nkomo zibomvu,nywabe, indoda uyivumi nepokoto, ocubungu)
  • Gcina, Helushe, Xhamela Ncancashe, Magwebulikhula, Malambedlile, Nokwindla, Thyopho (Bahamba bepheth’isali – ihashe bakulifuman’emlungwini, izinto zabantu abazibi koko bayazigcini, bathi iigusha ziziduli zentaba). The Gcina clan is originally from Lady Frere in the Eastern Cape. The amaGcina are thought to be kings of Lady Frere as they are the dominant clan. Mawande Ntantiso
  • Gebe (a Bomvana clan name)
  • Gqunu
  • Gqwashu (with Khoikhoi ancestry)
  • Gqwarhu - omhlophe, Khawu, Ntenge, Mtabasa ka Dingana, Jalamba
  • Gxarha - Cwerha, Vambane, Mahlahla, Mlawu, Potwana(Mpodomise subgroup clan name)
  • Hegebe
  • Jola SingaMampondomse ngohlanga, ooJola, ooJoliNkomo, ooMphaNkomo, ooQengeba, nomakhala, njuza, sthukuthezi, sithandwa mhla kukubi, hoshode, hakaha, mfaz’ obele ‘nye omabele made, oncancisa naphesheya komlambo
  • Jwarha (Mtika, Mazaleni, Jotela, Khatiti, Mnangwe, Mayarha, Mbelu, Ndabase, Bantw’abahle noba bapheth’ izikhali,
  • Khawuta
  • Khiwa (Qwebeda) (Khonjwayo,Ngcekula, Ndzondela, Hlaka, Ngetu, Phoswa, Silwanyana, Makalanyana, Sikhehlana a Pondo clan)
  • Khonjwayo Isizwe noMnombo (Tribe Genealogy): Sizakuwubeka ngokokuzalwa kwabo, sithatha nje iintloko zabo,,,,uChithwayo uzala uKhonjwayo, uKhonjwayo azale uKhiwa, uKhiwa uzele uNgcekula(Inkosi eyayiphethe ngexesha lakudala ihlonitshiwe)uNgcekula uzele uNdzondela kwindlu yake enkulu(Great House) ,noNtsikinyani ekunene(Right House).UNdzondela wazala uHlaka, uHlaka wazala uNgetu, uNgetu wazala uPhoswa, uPhoswa wazala uSilwanyana, uSilwanyana wazala uMakalanyana, uMakalanyana wazala uSikhehlana, uSikhehlana yena uzala uTatana. Ngoku singena kwinzala yendlu yasekunene kaNgcekula, uNtsikinyana uzele uMakhanda, uMakhanda wazala uNogemane kwiGreat House, kwiRight house wazala uThungana. Masiqale kwindlu enkulu, uNogemane uzele uGwadiso(Dumile), uGwadiso wazala uGodloza, uGodloza yena wazala uNtenteni, uNtenteni wazala uGobizithwana(uZwelidumile) waza ke yena uGobizithwana wazala uDumisani inkosi enkulu ephethe isizwe samaKhonjwayo ngoku. Kanti ke uThungana yena wobunene buka Makhanda uzele uSithelo, uSithelo wazala uPhonyela, uPhonyela wazala uMakhizinyani, uMakhizinyani yena wazala uHlathikhulu, uHlathikhulu yena uzala uThulani.
  • Khumalo (Mfengu clan name)
  • Khwetshube (Mpondo clan name)
  • Kwayi (Ngconde, Togu, Ubulawi, Ngcond’oneentshaba, etc.)
  • Madiba (the clan name of Nelson Mandela, a Thembu. Important rulers and chiefs include Mthikrakra, Ngangelizwe, Dalindyebo, Joyi, Jumba, Sabatha, Buyelekhaya)
  • Maduna (Gubevu, Nokhala, an Mfengu clan name)
  • Mambi (Nxontsa ka Xesibe, , uBhulingwe kuvele imamba, uNtabazikude zikuMganu,Mntshontsho uSabela uyabizwa emazibukweni)
  • Manci (Mbali, Wabane, Tshitshis’intaba, Mdludla ka Bekiso, Zinde Zinde Zinemiqala)
  • Maya (omaya oyem yem osophitsho, omagwa, ongqolomsila, obhomoyi)
  • Mahlangu
  • Matshaya Mbathane
  • Mbanjwa
  • Mbatha
  • Mbotho
  • Mdlangathi: Mome mome Sirhama Somntwana, Juta
  • Mfene: Lisa, Jambase, Hlathi, Buswayo, Canzi, Sanzanza
  • Mhaga (noSabe, Amawel’ukuzana, uQwetha no Gqubushe)
  • Miya, Gcwanini, Sibewu, Sijekula, Salakulandelwa
  • Mjoli (Qubulashe, Wushe, Nonina)
  • Mkhwemte Dabane Sgadi Mekhi Ntswentswe Fulashe Nojaholo Ncibane Qhanqolo Ntlokwenyathi Ngququ venge
  • Mpangela, Mvinjwa, Rhoshana, Ndlazi, Dlomo, Sibetho, Magwala, Gwadzi elisilika bubuhle.
  • Mpehle (Mpodomise subgroup clan name)
  • Mpemvu : uJali ,uJuda, uNtlotshane, Bumela, uNgciva(a Thembu clan name)
  • Mpinga, Mbetshane, Hlahla lamsik’ umntu es*ndeni, ngceza, Sintila, Nyaw’ zinoshukela, mzukulu kaSityulu, kheth ‘omthandayo, Mawawa, ): the clan of Enoch Sontonga, author of “Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika”, part of National Anthem of Republic of South Africa.
  • Mtakwenda (Leta, Libele, Tyebelendle, Ngcwadi, Kwangeshe, Mentuko, Mboyi, Solizembe)
  • Mthunzi (Nyukwana, Homposhe, Njifile, Ntibane, Pepepe, Thambo lihlab’elimzondayo, Qabel’eliweni)
  • Mvulane (Ncilashe, Msuthu – they belong to the amaVundle people)
  • Mweli (Jili, Msingawuthi, Ngqambela, Sibakhulu, Ntlangwini’s enebathat yaseMakhuzeni)
  • Myirha Mzondi Sampu Ziyeka (Ithambo lenyoka lihlaba elimzondayo)
  • Ncuthu
  • Ndaba (Tshibase, Bhadela, Mntungwa, Nonunu, Nomangcangca, Nogubela)
  • Ndala (Ndala ka Momamana, uMncotshe, Msunu Sdumbu, Thole, Ngxunga Smukumuku, Ndithinina )
  • Ndlovu Mntungwa Gengesi Malunga Mancoba (zidlekhaya ngokuswela umalusi)
  • Ndzaba (Msuthu, Bhili, Mancoba, Gase, Mwelase) into ezehla ezintabeni/ezinkahlambeni zishubele ngenqatha lehashe…
  • Ngcitshane
  • Ngxongo
  • Ngwanya
  • Nkomo (Mntungwa, Khumalo – amaMfengu. They are originally Ndebele from Natal and arrived in as refugees in Thembuland in 1828 during the time of the Mfecane wars.)
  • Nkwali (Mfengu/Hlubi clan name: bhukula, Mkhwanazi, Nkwali ye Nkosi). The Nkwalis’s were born ebukhosini (kingdom) buka Ndwandwe and they were famous during the rule of Dlomo the Thembu king. Nkwali originate from Mkhwanazi ka Ndwandwe. Nkwali joined the amaHlubi tribe. Nkwali gave birth to Mlabatheki who gave birth to Bukula. Same as Bukula, Maphela also comes from Nkwali. Mapela (Xhosa name for cockroach) got the name because he was so wealthy that his wealth was all over like cockroaches.

“…Abakwa Nkwali bazalwa ebukhosini, kunjalo nje baduma kakhulu ngolawulo likaDlomo. UMlabatheki wayengumfo wakwaNkwali; yena uzala uBukula, lo ufungwayo ngabo. uBukula ngulo wamisela uNtsele kubukhulu bamaHlubi, gokusuka amkhelele amanzi ngophondo ukuba awase kuise-mkhulu uDlomo. AbakwaMaphela isekwa ngabakwaNkwali. Balifumana eli gama kuba ubutyebi babo buska banyakasela ngokwamaphela, kwaba se kusithiwas ngabakwaMaphela. “Ngabakwa Nkwal’ enkosi, Enyon’ engadliwa ngabafokazana idliwa ngamakhosi. Ngabakwa Buz’ elikhul’ elagedl’ umhlanga, Kwavel’ amaBuz’ abuzwana. NgabakwaNongubo-ntloko. Abanye bazitetil’ abanye bazithwele. Inkwali yintak’ engcondo zibomvu Edla ikhethe lomfula”…” Source: IZiduko zama Hlubi, ngu Henry Masila Ndawo. Published by Lovedale Press, 1939. Found at Rhodes University Library. Last updated 12/03/2013 nguNkwali, uBukula, uThando wakwa Mjebeza kaNokuni ozalwaNgumsithi yena ozalwangu Mjebeza eGobozana eQonce.

  • Nompunzi ((thole lempunzi), Gcodi, Lusalu, Catala ka Qoyi, mbumbulu inye zingabambini ziyadubulana)
  • Nozulu (Kheswa, Mpafane, Mchumane, Mpangazitha, Macocobela, Mbanguba, Thukela) by AD
  • Nqarhwane (ooZduli, ooHintsabe, ooMaqhula, ooHlabilawu)
  • Ntshilibe
  • Nxasana
  • Nxuba (Mduma, Rhudulu)
  • Nyawuza (Faku, Mpondo ruling line, chiefs including Faku, Sigcau, Bokleni, Ndamase)
  • Nzothwa
  • Mqadi Ngqwili Nondlobe,Ngcwina,
  • Qhinebe - Gqugqugqu, Zithonga-zthathu, Haha, Mlunjwa, Mkhomanzi, Duka namahlathi,konjanémnyama idlalémafini.
  • Qocwa (Zikhali Mazembe, Jojo, Tiyeka, Butsolo Beentonga Mbizana, Mabombo)
  • Qoma (Qomukuyitya, Nyoyela, Nwaba ndikwenze, Singqu, Sisiqobo eso) by AD
  • Qithi (Ndinga, Nkomo ayizali izala ngokuzaliswa, Yem-yem, Sopitsho, Ngqolomsila, Velabembhentsele, Zondwa, Thembu)
  • Thwane (Fulela wanetha, Mfazi olivila, Mpemvu,Sabelo, Wuwu)
  • Mqwambi, Holomi
  • Qwathi - Iinkomo zikaXesibe, zikaJojo, zikaMtshutshumbe, ogqaz’indlel’ebhek’ebuNguni. (The amaQwathi are not a clan but an independent nation founded by Mtshutshumbe kaMthetho who split from the amaXesibe nation and settled in the Mqanduli area in Thembuland some 350 years ago. Later they settled in their present capital of Engcobo during the reign of King Dlomo of abaThembu, about 1680. This small but fiercely independent and anti-colonial nation divides into several clans: amaDikela, amaTshaba, ooSdindi, ooBhlangwe, ooBhose, amaNzolo, imiNcayi, amaNtondo, amaKhombayo, ooMkhondweni, amaVumbe, ooKhebesi, amaBangula, amaDumba, ooMhotho, ooCakeni, ooBhabha, amaMvala, amaDabisa, ooS’ximba, etc. Prominent chiefs include the heroic anti-colonial Stokwe ka-Ndlela, the courageous Dalasile kaFubu, the great Fubu himself (who fought and killed both Rharhabe and his son Mlawu in 1782, defended his capital and defeated Madzikane of the Bhaca in 1824 and Matiwane of Ngwane in 1828 during the Mfecane wars triggered by Shaka, etc.), Zwelakhe (present chief))
  • Rhadebe (Bhungane, Mthimkhulu, Ndlebentle’zombini, Makhulukhulu, Mafuz’ afulele njengelifu lemvula, Mashwabada owashwabadel’ inkomo nempondo zayo, Mbucwa, Zikode (amaHlubi)
  • Rhoyi
  • Sithathu – means “third” (the third Khoi-khoi ancestry clan)[oChisana, Khopoyi, Ndebe, Hasa,Lawu]
  • Skhosana (Skhosana, Novaphi, Mntungwa, Ntuthwana, msikamhlanga, uNtuthu uyeaqhuma zonke izizwe zabikelana zathi ngabakwaSkhosana. Dunga) by Onesimo Langeni
  • Skhoji (A group of Xhosa speaking people who mainly occupy the small town called Tsolo on the Tsitsa valley. They are the direct descendants of a Scottish man by the name of William Saunders who befriended a Xhosa girl and later had issue.)
  • Shiya
  • Sohobese
  • Sonani
  • Sukwini (with Khoi-khoi ancestry) – [Chwama, Dibashe, Lawu'ndini, Nja-bomvu, Sandlala-ngca, Ithole loMthwakazi, Tiki ayivumi napokotho, unnqayi linqindi,imvaba yiketile]
  • Thangana (Krila,Mtengwana, Rhaso, M’bamba, Bodlinja, Gobingca)
  • Thole (Gqagqane, Buzini, Ndlangisa, Mzimshe, Lwandle)
  • Tolo (Hlubi clan name – Dlangamandla, Mchenge, Mabhanekazi, Zulu, Vumbalempongo liyanuka)
  • Tshangisa (Zulu, Skhomo, Mhlatyana, Rhudulu, Nxuba, Mngwevu)
  • Tshawe (the ruling house among all the Xhosa. Chiefs include HintsaSigcawuSarhiliXolilizwe, etc.)
  • Tshezi (the ruling Bomvana clan of the Jalamba-Gambushe line, with European shipwreck ancestry)
  • Tshomane (with shipwreck ancestry, split from the ruling Nyawuza clan of the Mpondo)
  • Tshonyane [The clan name of chris hani] (aphuma kubelungu abatyekezwa yinqanawe), (Chungwa, Dikiza, Sawu, Tota, Simnke, Khwane, Hani, Zulu, Mth’uzimele, Gqunukhwebe, Nkomo z’bomvu)
  • Xesibe (AmaXesibe are a nation made up of several clans and tribes but their history is not well documented. Common clan names are: Nondzaba, Mbathane, Tshomela ka Matsho).
  • Xhamela (They are also called amaGcina, found in Thembuland).
  • Zangwa (Khwalo, Ncuthu, Sohobese, oonkuma – amaMpondo).
  • Zulu (Ntombhela, Mahlahlula emaduneni, Tshaka)

Major Xhosa-speaking nations or groups

Not all Xhosa speaking people belong to the amaXhosa nation whose rulership descends from amaTshawe (the Gcaleka and Rharhabe rulerships. The amaXhosa nation are the descendants of the line of Tshiwo to Phalo who begot Gcaleka and Rharhabe. Some people make the mistake of saying all Xhosa speakers are Umzi kaPhalo. The House of Phalo split into the amaGcaleka and amaRharhabe and the kingdom is presently being fought over between these two Xhosa houses. The issue of a Xhosa kingdom remains unresolved. These nations or groups include:

  • AmaBhaca (descended from Madzikane, chief of the amaNgwane, killed during the invasion of Thembuland in 1828)
  • AmaGqunukhwebe
  • AmaMfengu (amaHlubi, amaBhele, amaZizi, amaNgwane, etc.)
  • AmaMpondo (Pondoland; their kingdom is in dispute, like that of the amaXhosa)
  • AmaMpondomise (their kingdom was destroyed by British colonists in revenge for the killing of magistrate Christopher Hope by Mhlontlo’s forces during the Anti-Colonial Revolt of 1880. The revolt was led by Mhlontlo of the amaMpondomise together with Gecelo of the amaGcina, Dalasile and Stokwe of the amaQwathi and Squngathi of the abaThembu).
  • AmaQwathi (Qwathiland)
  • AbaThembu (their kingdom is in dispute between the Matanzima and Dalindyebo descendants – Dalindyebo descedants are regarded as the rightful Kings of Thembu).
  • AmaVundle
  • AmaXesibe (Xesibeland
  • AmaXhosa (Xhosaland; the kingdom is in dispute between amaGcaleka and amaRharhabe – AmaGcaleka are regarded as the rightful Kings of AmaXhosa)

The AmaMpondo have their separate lineage that is traceable from Sibiside to Dlemini to Njanya, to Mpondo and Mpondomise (twins) and Xesibe. The descendants of Mpondo are Santsabe, Sukude, Msiza, Ncindise, Cabe, Gangata, Bhala, Chithwayo, Khonjwayo, Ngcoya, Hlamandana, Tahle, Nyawuza and many others. The descendants of Xesibe are Ntozabantu to Ndzuza to Miyana to Bimbi to Nondzaba who begot Hlabe to Mthetho to Mtshutshumbe who founded the amaQwathi nation. Mtshutshumbe begot Mndwana begot Ncobe begot Nkovane begot Ntswayibana begot Dikela. The amaMpondo, amaMpondomise, amaXesibe and amaQwathi nations are related but the amaQwathi settled in Thembuland more than 350 years ago and as a result Qwathi chiefdom is more Thembu in culture and political association.

 

PS: This is work in progress. If you have corrections, additions and suggestions, please send an email to: xhosaculture@gmail.com CAMAGU!

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